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Smithburn vaccine

The RVF Smithburn vaccine produced in South Africa and used successfully to prevent and control the disease in endemic sub-Saharan countries was compared to the candidate vaccine RVF Clone 13. Five sero-negative calves per vaccine group were vaccinated with a single dose of each vaccine and tested for antibody response A modified live vaccine (the Smithburn vaccine) is one of the oldest and most widely used vaccines for controlling RVF in Africa. This vaccine only requires a single dose, but is known to cause birth defects and abortions in pregnant livestock and may only provide cattle with limited protection from infection with RVF Historically, 2 vaccines have been available for control of RVFV in livestock. The first is based on the live-attenuated Smithburn virus (1). Although this vaccine is inexpensive and provides lasting immunity after 1 dose, its residual virulence renders it unsuitable for application in newborn and gestating livestock

Safety and efficacy of Rift Valley fever Smithburn and

In 1949, Smithburn and co-workers developed the first veterinary RVF vaccine by serial intracerebral passage of RVFV in mice. The resulting Smithburn virus is a highly effective vaccine but can still cause liver damage and is able to transmit to the fetus SmithburnRVF vaccine -Smithburnneurotropic strain (SNS -neuroadapted). Developed in 1949 via i.c. passages (~102)of the pathogenic Entebbe strain in mice 1 million lyophilized doses of vaccine containing 10% mouse brain extract sold in SA and Kenya between 1951-1968, and 6 million doses (m.d) in Zimbabwe between 1969-1970 The Smithburn vaccine is a modified live virus vaccine. It is immunogenic for sheep, goats and cattle, and it protects against abortion caused by a wild virus strain. However, it has a residual pathogenic effect in humans (flu-like syndrome) and ruminants (abortion, congenital malformation)

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Smithburn vaccine is highly immunogenic, but it is terato-genic in pregnant sheep and cattle (Coetzer and Barnard 1977, Botros et al. 2006). The formalin-inactivated whole-virus vaccines are safe but less immunogenic (Lubroth et al. 2007). Clone 13, another live attenuated natural mutant, i Live-attenuated Smithburn vaccine. This has several advantages over the inactivated vaccine: it lasts longer, is more effective and is cheaper. However, due to residual virulence, it can cause abortion and foetal malformations when given to pregnant animals. RVF Clone 13 - a live attenuated vaccine derived from the Clone 13 virus Vaccine Development The first major breakthrough in efforts to combat Rift Valley fever (RVF) in animals occurred with the development of the live-attenuated Smithburn vaccine in the late 1940s. Although it was effective in inducing long-term immunity in animals, the vaccine unfortunately retains some virulence and is teratogenic, causing. No vaccines are available for human use and, though licensed veterinary vaccines are available, these have major drawbacks that limit their use. 13 For instance, the Smithburn vaccine is a highly.

The licensed Smithburn vaccine was also protective but, consistent with previous reports of its variable immunogenicity in some livestock 14,28, one goat and one calf receiving this vaccine. In June 2018, 4 alpaca inoculated subcutaneously with live attenuated RVF virus (RVFV) Smithburn strain exhibited pyrexia, aberrant vocalization, anorexia, neurologic signs, and respiratory distress. One animal died the evening of inoculation, and 2 at ~20 d post-inoculation Modified live attenuated and inactivated virus vaccines are available. The live attenuated Smithburn vaccine only requires one dose but may cause spontaneous abortion in pregnant stock. This vaccine has adverse effects in newborn kids and lambs and teratogenic effects or abortion in pregnant cows, ewes and goats A veterinary vaccine commonly used in Africa is called the Smithburn vaccine. Several new generation vaccines are now under development for safe use in humans, with TSI-GSD 200 and MP-12 vaccines.

Rift Valley fever; the neurotropic adaptation of the virus and the experimental use of this modified virus as a vaccine Br J Exp Pathol. 1949 Feb;30(1):1-16. Author K C SMITHBURN. PMID: 18128091 PMCID: PMC2073103 No abstract available. MeSH terms Animals Humans Rift Valley Fever* Vaccines*. Vaccination of ewes with live Smithburn strain vaccine may result in early embryonic death, congenital CNS anomalies and arthrogryposis, or abortion or stillbirth. Clinical signs and abortions have also been reported in goats, and occasionally in camels, water buffalo, and some wild ungulate species Adverse reactions to vaccines and drugs in cattle. Allergic reactions . can range from hives . to itching or swelling . to systemic shock . leading to fluid . in the lungs and . sudden death. Occasionally cattle experience a reaction to vaccine or medication (injected, applied topically or given orally) The live attenuated RVF Smithburn vaccine also referred as Smithburn neurotropic strain or SNS. The Smithburn neurotropic strain of RVF virus was derived from the virulent Entebbe strain by numerous serial intracerebral passages in mice [ 45 ] The live Smithburn vaccine is more immunogenic and requires only a single dose; however it causes abortion and foetal teratogenicity when administered to pregnant animals . In addition, there have been reports that the live vaccine can revert to virulence and be transmitted from vaccinated to susceptible animal and humans resulting in RVF.

Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Development, Progress and

This is the first report of respiratory distress, neurological signs and sudden death in alpaca post inoculation with the Smithburn strain. It is also the first examination of RVF viral RNA distribution in alpaca tissues. RVF live attenuated Smithburn vaccine can cause meningoencephalitis in alpacas. Support or Funding Informatio The Smithburn vaccine can induce a long-term protective immunity with a single dose in ruminants . There is, however, a potential risk of abortion or fetal malformation in pregnant animals, as well as possible genetic reassortment with pathogenic RVFV strains or reversion to virulence associated with the use of this vaccine,. However, there is a licensed RVF vaccine known as Smithburn® which is produced at the Kenya Veterinary Vaccines Production Institute (KEVEVAPI) and is widely used in Africa. However, Smithburn. The first is based on the live attenuated Smithburn virus. Although this vaccine is inexpensive and provides lasting immunity after one dose, its residual virulence renders it unsuitable for application in newborn and gestating livestock. A safe alternative is based on inactivated whole virus The vaccines were developed from the Smithburn 69 strain of RVFV by serial passages in mouse brains (Smithburn (1949); Ikegami and Makino (2009)). 70 As the neuroadapted virus only partially lost its virulence, this type of vaccine may induce abortions 71 and teratogenesis in pregnant ruminants, and has the potential for reversion and.

38 fotivax foot and mouth disease vaccine serotype a,o ,sat1 and sat2 liophlisat doses kevevapi kenya 39 riftivax smithburn's strain liophlisat doses kevevapi kenya 40 brucella rb 51 brucella abortus rb51 liophlisat doses msd south africa 41 syncro-part® pmsg gonadotropine sÉrique Équine (ecg, anciennement appelÉ The first vaccine, vCOGnGc, was attenuated by the deletion of a VACV gene encoding an IFN-γ binding protein, insertional inactivation of the thymidine kinase gene, and expression of RVFV glycoproteins, Gn and Gc. The second vaccine, vCOGnGcγ, is identical to the first and also expresses the human IFN-γ gene to enhance safety The evidence points to a pure infection with Smithburn vaccine strain as the cause of the animals' disease. Keywords alpacas, live attenuated vaccine, meningoencephalitis, Rift Valley fever virus, Vicugna pacos. References. 1. Barnard, BJ, Botha, MJ. An inactivated rift valley fever vaccine

Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Virus Clone 13 Is Able to Cross

  1. The inactivated vaccines are effective and safe, but they are more expensive and at least 2 doses must be given. They are currently produced only in Egypt and South Africa. SMITHBURN KC. Rift Valley fever; the neurotropic adaptation of the virus and the experimental use of this modified virus as a vaccine. Br J Exp Pathol
  2. The modified live Smithburn vaccine is one of the oldest and most widely used vaccines for controlling RVF in Africa. The vaccine virus is a neurotropic RVFV strain , isolated from a mosquito Eretmapodites spp. in Uganda in 1944 [6,99]
  3. e when an animal is pregnant especially in early pregnancy 2/9/2009 1
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for safe and effective vaccines [1-4]. Smithburn modified live virus (SMLV) vaccine prepared from a mouse neuroadapted strain of RVFV, has been used extensively for immunization of live-stock in Africa, but is less effective in cattle than in sheep and is only partially attenuated, causing abor-tion or teratology in a proportion of pregnant animal The vaccine potency (in vivo and in vitro) should be assessed against a product-specific reference preparation. The first (primary) reference preparation should be established using a vaccine lot found to be effective and safe in clinical trials or, alternatively, a vaccine lot that is traceable to a vaccine lot of proven effectiveness and safety The 17D vaccine has proven to be extremely safe and effective (5). The 17D strain is grown in chick embryo inoculated with a seed virus of a fixed-passage level. The vaccine is freeze-dried supernate of centrifuged embryo homogenate, packaged in one-dose and five-dose vials for domestic use The most effective vaccine is the modified live Smithburn neurotropic strain (SNS). This vaccine is immunogenic but has the disadvantage that it can cause foetal pathology and abortion in pregnant sheep of susceptible genotypes. Up to 30 percent of such animals may be affected by abortion or foetal abnormalities

Prevention and control measures for Rift Valley feve

Bunyavirales is an order of segmented negative-strand RNA viruses with mainly tripartite genomes. Member viruses infect arthropods, plants, protozoans, and vertebrates. It is the only order in the class Ellioviricetes. The name Bunyavirales derives from Bunyamwera, where the original type species Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus was first discovered.. Historically, a live-virus vaccine prepared from Smithburn strain was used for the control of RVF in non-pregnant cattle and sheep in endemic areas and during outbreaks. The inactivated vaccines were the only choice for use in pregnant animals and in RVF-free countries [16] von Teichman B, Engelbrecht A, Zulu G, Dungu B, Pardini A, Bouloy M. Safety and efficacy of Rift Valley fever Smithburn and clone 13 vaccines in calves. Vaccine. 2011;29(34):5771-7. Article Google Scholar 36. Richards AL, Jiang J, Omulo S, Dare R, Abdirahman K, Ali A, Sharif SK, Feikin DR, Breiman RF, Njenga MK Eight Hundred serum samples were collected from eight sheep consignment imported from different African countries previously vaccinated with Rift Valley Fever (RVF) live attenuated smithburn vaccine 3-4 weeks ago before transportation to kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).In KSA, routine detection of RVF antibodies was done using indirect sandwich ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay) instead.

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Safety and efficacy of ChAdOx1 RVF vaccine against Rift

1. A vaccine prepared from partially defatted bovine tubercle bacilli influenced favorably the survival time after inoculation with living virulent bovine tubercle bacilli. 2. Accompanying this increased resistance was a sustained lymphocytosis in the vaccinated animals. 3. The vaccine induced a transitory anemia and leucopenia. 4 A new quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to differentiate Rift Valley fever (RVF) Smithburn vaccine strain from Clone 13 vaccine strain. The new qRT-PCR assay targeting the S segment (NSs and N gene) was tested on synthesized standard RNA and MP-12 strain viruses. The detection limit of the new qRT-PCR assay is 1 copy/μL of NSs and N, and. SMITHBURN, KC lg54 Am J Med Hyg 3:g. BUCKLEY, S. lgô4 Proc soc Exp 116354 MOORE D.L, 1975 Anm Med Parasit 6949-64 Rapport Annuel de I'lnstitut Pasteur de aanguL lgôY p. 43, 56. MOORE [JC Personal communicatiom 1971 MARCHETTI NJ, Igag Am J Med Hyg 18411 FILIPE lg73 Arch ges Virusforsch 43315 CALISHER C. et ah Personal communication lg8 Education. Judge Smithburn attended Indiana University in Bloomington to earn his Bachelor of Arts (1966), Masters degree (1970), and J.D. (1973).. Career. In 1974 Smithburn became a member of the Indiana Bar and engaged in private practice in Plymouth, Indiana from 1974 to 1976. In 1976 he served as judge in Marshall County, Indiana until 1978. He was also an adjunct assistant professor at. YF-VAX vaccine is contraindicated in anyone with a history of acute hypersensitivity reaction to any components (including gelatin). (22) Because the yellow fever virus used in the production of this vaccine is propagated in chicken embryos, YF-VAX vaccine should not be administered to anyone with a history of acute hypersensitivity to eggs or egg products; anaphylaxis may occur

In memoriam: J. Eric Smithburn, emeritus professor of law Notre Dame Law School Professor Emeritus J. Eric Smithburn — a leading scholar in family law and a compassionate advocate for disadvantaged children and families — passed away June 18 The vaccine has been licensed and is currently being used routinely in endemic areas (Pattnaik 2006). Efforts to develop a vaccine against Lassa fever virus are ongoing (Cleri 2006, Fisher-Hoch 2004, Geisbert 2005, Grant-Klein 2011). A number of studies on vaccines for Marburg and Ebola viruses have been published over the last few years

Live attenuated RVF Smithburn vaccine Live attenuated (Smithburnstrain) (1971) •Mouse adapted partially attenuated Smithburnstrain •Relatively easy and safe to produce •Relatively short lead time •Immunogenic after single dose •Long lasting immunity •BUT annual vaccination in endemic areas is recommended Concerns For example, the attenuated live Smithburn vaccine strain has been widely used throughout Africa for more than six decades and, in fact, has been identified as reassorting with a wild-type field strain . The live attenuated MP-12 strain has been pursued as a more desirable alternative to earlier live attenuated strains such as Smithburn In conclusion, the MVP 12 vaccine strain appears to have marked neurotropic characteristics and it therefore has no advantages over the currently used live Smithburn vaccine. REFERENCES BARNARD, B.J.H. & BOTHA, M.J. 1977. An inactivated Rift Valley fever vaccine. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 8:45-48 Rift Valley Fever Vaccines is of two types, live attenuated RVF vaccine (Smithburn strain) and killed vaccine. Vaccinations protect human beings and the animals, those humans rely on for food and as a source of income. Global Rift Valley Fever Vaccines Market Outlook

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ChAdOx1- GnGc (n=80 per species), Smithburn vaccine (n=80 per species) or placebo (saline; n=20 per species).The animals will be followed for 12 months after their vaccination, and safety and immunogenicity endpoints assessed. The primary aim of this non-inferiority field trial is to determine the similarities i An LSDV vaccine is critical for sustainable control of lumpy skin disease (LSD). There are four commercially available live attenuated vaccines for LSDV, nLSDV, Herbivac, Lumpyvax and the Kenyan strain sheeppox virus (KS-1). In this study Herbivac was characterised by 1.2.3.3 Live attenuated Smithburn vaccine. currently unknown, development of vaccines that elicit antibody titres within the range induced by natural infec-tions is a very attractive way forward. The widely used live attenuated RVFV vaccines (e.g. Smithburn vaccine) in livestock in Africa 14 elicit high titre neutralizing antibody and provide durable cross-strain protection. However However, the Smithburn vaccine causes abortion in gestating ewes and fetal malformation [17-19]. The Clone 13 vaccine affords protection to domestic ruminants, but experimental studies indicated that the vaccine has the potential to cause teratogenic effect among pregnant sheep [16,20]. Among several candidate vaccines, under development Smithburn vaccine is the first RVF vaccine prepared in 1949 through serially passaging in the mouse brain using the RVFV virus Entebbe strain. Subsequently, the neurotropic strain of the virus was attenuated in the same manner, and the obtained vaccine containing the mouse brain extract was sold in South Africa from 1951 to 1968

Such vaccines often require only a single injection, increasing speed and convenience of administration. A live attenuated vaccine for Rift Valley Fever virus already exists, a strain called MP-12 Existing RVF vaccines Live attenuated Smithburn Clone-13 Inactivated Smithburn based on virulent strains Human inactivated vaccine TSI-GSD 200. 3 Drawbacks of current available vaccines Inactivated vaccines: Multiple doses needed, expensive to produce, lower efficacy The vaccine is also not recommended for use in young and gestating animals because it may cause disease and abortions, respectively . Despite these shortcomings, only the Smithburn vaccine is approved for RVF prevention in Kenya Rift Valley fever vaccines are of two types, the live attenuated RVF vaccine (Smithburn strain) and the killed vaccine. Vaccines protect humans and animals, which humans depend on for food and as a source of income. Rift Valley Fever Vaccines Market is growing at a High CAGR during the forecast period 2021-2027 Current livestock vaccines are based on live-attenuated or formalin-inactivated virus. However, formalin-inactivated vaccines require repeat immunizations to achieve protective efficacy and, though live-attenuated vaccines (E.g. Smithburn vaccine) confers long-lasting immunity, it is not safe for use in pregnant animals

Comparison of ELISA and VNT titers in RVF Clone 13

A tick-borne virus related to Zika and dengue has resurfaced in the forests of Western Ghats 1, 2, 3 killing over 120 people in the last two years, about a decade after it was thought to have been contained with vaccination. The Kyasanur Forest Disease (KFD) is being reported for the first time from Kerala, Goa and Maharashtra states — not far from its original hub in Karnataka — prompting. Inactivated vaccine, live attenuated Smithburn vaccine, and the most recent Clone. Although Formalin-Inactivated vaccine and live attenuated Smithburn vaccine are immunogenic and widely used in prevention programs, they proved to be accompanied by signi cant concerns Smithburn KC, Mahaffy AF, Haddow AJ, Kitchen SF, Smith JF. The yellow fever vaccine is produced in limited supply, and world stocks are not sufficient to meet a surge. 122 This vaccine would not be useful in preventing disease if given in the postexposure setting because yellow fever has a short incubation period of 3 to 6 days,. Vaccination with Rift Valley fever virus live attenuated vaccine strain Smithburn caused meningoencephalitis in alpacas. Overview of attention for article published in Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, May 2021. Altmetric Badge. About this Attention Scor

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The live Smithburn vaccine, on the other hand, produced longlasting immuni- ty with a single dose; however, due to remaining virulence, caused abortions and fetal malformations when administered to pregnant animals [10]. The Clone 13 RVFV strain is a strain isolated from a RVF-infected patient from Centra The live-attenuated Smithburn vaccine against RVFV is effective in livestock, but is not recom-mended for pregnant animals (Barnard and Botha, 1977; Botros et al., 2006) and therefore not practical for a large-scale vaccination program. A formalin-inactivate Vaccine Development. Current departmental research includes vaccine development for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Smallpox, and Rift Valley Fever in animals. Researchers. Michael Cho, PhD. Michael John Kimber, PhD. Richard J Martin, BVSc, PhD, DSc, Dip ECVPT, MRCVS Alphavirus vectors are high-level, transient expression vectors for therapeutic and prophylactic use. These positive-stranded RNA vectors, derived from Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, multiply and are expressed in the cytoplasm of most vertebrate cells, including human cells The modified live Smithburn vaccine is the most widely used vaccine to control RVF in Africa but poses vast risks such as genetic reassortment among RVFV isolates in nature and resulted in a genetic footprint across different countries in Africa

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Mild disease, generally called West Nile fever, may cause some or all of the following symptoms: Abdominal pain. Fever, headache, and sore throat. Lack of appetite. Muscle aches. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Rash. Swollen lymph nodes. These symptoms usually last for 3 to 6 days, but may last a month IU is on the front lines of important, life-changing issues and global developments. With an eye on the future, IU scientists and researchers are making Indiana—and the world—a better place through their research on groundbreaking projects in a variety of areas, including medicine, science, technology, and the humanities. Explore IU research

The changing epidemiology of yellow fever and continued reports of rare but serious adverse events associated with yellow fever vaccine have drawn attention to the need to revisit criteria for the designation of areas with risk for yellow fever virus activity, and to revise the vaccine recommendations for international travel. WHO convened a working group of international experts to review. YF vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) are from 17D and 17DD substrains, which have minor differences in nucleotide sequences. 6 Control of viral substrains and serial passage levels through the seed lot system were implemented in the 1940's to avert unwanted alterations in biological properties of the vaccine. 4 YF. The Smithburn live attenuated vaccine for RVFV protection in livestock was initially developed in 1949. While effective, the vaccine retains significant virulence; as a result, an attenuated MP-12 strain has been studied extensively as a vaccine alternative. This strain has been the subject of investigation for human vaccine use as well Smithburn K, Hughes T, Burke A, et al. A neurotropic virus isolated from the blood of a native of Uganda. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1940; 20:471-492. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. West Nile Fever maps. [Accessed December 2017] European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus capable of causing disease in humans.; Symptoms and signs of West Nile virus include fever, headache, body aches, skin rash, and swollen lymph nodes.; Severe symptoms and signs may include stiff neck, sleepiness, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, and paralysis.; Most cases of West Nile virus infection are mild and go unreported

What is Rift Valley Fever? - News Medica

Currently, a live attenuated vaccine (Smithburn strain) and inactivated RVFV vaccines are available; however, although live attenuated vaccines are highly immunogenic, they are not safe for use in livestock [28, 29]. Inactivated vaccines are safer, but less effective, than live attenuated vaccines and require repeated vaccination Classical RVF vaccines are based on formalin-inactivated virus or the live-attenuated Smithburn strain. The inactivated vaccine is highly safe but requires multiple administrations and yearly re-vaccinations. Although the Smithburn vaccine provides solid protection after a single vaccination, this vaccine is not safe for pregnant animals Vaccines currently being used in RVF endemic countries such as South Africa and Kenya include the live-attenuated Smithburn strain vaccine and a formalin inactivated aluminum hydroxide adjuvanted vaccine, based on a low passage wild RVF strain [12]. Though effective, both of these vaccines have limitations preventing their potential use Vaccination is considered to be the most effective way to prevent and control the expansion of the disease. However, the available attenuated vaccines for RVF cause abortions and teratogenic effects (Smithburn strain vaccine) or are thermolabile (CL13 strain vaccine) [6, 9, 10]